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THE CONGREGATIONAL LECTURE.

SEVENTH SERIES.

THE CONNEXION AND HARMONY

OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS.

W. LINDSAY ALEXANDER, M.A.

LONDON : RICHARD CLAY, PRTNTEB, BKDAD STREET HILL.

THE

CONNEXION AND HARMONY

OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS:

AN INQUIRY INTO THE RELATION,

LITERARY AND DOCTRINAL,

IN WHICH THESE TWO PARTS OF THE SACRED VOLUME

STAND TO EACH OTHER.

W. LINDSAY ALEXANDER, M.A.

EDINBURGH.

Ttt tv Trj Kaivti diaOiiKi] o'lKovo/jLOvneva, kv Ttj ■naKanj. 'ji/ <7Kia'ypa0oi''ju£i'a.

Chrysostom. Testamentum Vetus de Christo exhibendo, Novum de Christo exhibito agit: Novum in veteri latet, vetus in novo patet. Augustin.

LONDON : JACKSON AND WALFORD,

18, ST. PAUL'S CHURCHYARD.

184L

PREFACE.

" All Scripture," says Paul, speaking of the Old Testament, " is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness." It is to be feared that many excellent persons, whilst they cannot but admit this statement of the Apostle, are far from enjoying a personal realization of its truth. From the more devo- tional parts of the Jewish Scriptures they may derive much spiritual advantage ; but for the book, as a whole, they find themselves unable to entertain the same feeling of grateful regard as they possess towards the writings of the New Testament, fi'om which they are in the habit of deriving principally their religious aliment. The existence of such a divided state of feeling towards the two great component portions of a volume which, if of Divine origin, must be har- monious in its texture, is a circumstance deeply

VI PREFACE.

to be regretted. If the Old Testament was xvntien for the use of Jews, it has been, by the gracious providence of God, preserved for the use of Christians ; and to them, no less than to the Jews, is held out the assurance, that "he that meditates in the law of God, shall be like a tree planted by the rivers of waters, that bringeth forth his fruit in his season, whose leaf shall not wither, and who shall prosper in what- soever he doth." To neglect a study recom- mended by such an assurance can neither be right nor safe.

The main cause to which that neglect of the Old Testament to which I have referred is to be attributed, is not a disposition to underrate any portion of revealed truth, but rather an inability to perceive the bearing of many parts of that book, upon the principles and feelings which Christianity teaches us to receive and foster. We may hope to remedy it, therefore, by laying before the minds of intelligent Chris- tians right views of the close connexion, mutual dependence, and internal harmony of the Old and New Testaments, so as at once to convince them that Christianity must be found in the former as well as in the latter, and to put them on the right way of finding it. To supply what has appeared to the author a desideratum hitherto on this head in our British theological literature is the design of the present publi- cation.

PREFACE. Vll

The vastness of the field I have had to traverse has necessitated my proceeding upon principles of selection and condensation in the arrangement of my materials. I have, conse- quently, confined myself as much as possible to such points as seemed of most comprehensive- ness and moment ; and have, save in a few instances, rested contented with adducing the evidence in favour of my positions, without en- tering at length into the refutation of such objections as might be adduced against them. This I felt to be the less necessary, that the controversial bearings of the different branches of my subject are those which have hitherto almost exclusively occupied the attention of those who have written upon them.

Desirous of consulting the interests of all classes of readers, I have abstained, as much as possible, from all exegetical disquisition in the text, and have placed such philological remarks as seemed necessary for the elucidation of the passages quoted in notes. For the same reason, I have rendered into English the quotations from ancient or foreign authors which I have had occasion to introduce ; judging it not only more useful, but, upon the whole, more scholarly, to do so, than to load my pages with masses of Greek, Latin, and German, which two-thirds, perhaps, of my readers could not undei'stand, and which no one would, in such a case, have had any security that I understood myself.

Vlll PREFACE.

Since the Lectures were delivered in the Congregational Library, they have been nearly entirely rewritten, and have, consequently, un- dergone considerable alterations in arrangement as well as in substance. My anxious aim has been to compress as large a portion of authentic information into my pages as was compatible with the limits within which I was necessarily confined. I now commend the work to the Divine blessing, and to the candid and enlight- ened judgment of my christian brethren.

W. L„ A.

Edinburgh, March 3lst, 1841.

ADVERTISEMENT.

(BY THE COMMITTEE OF THE CONGREGATIONAL LIBRARY.)

The " Congregational Library " was established with a view to the promotion of Ecclesiastical, Theological, and Biblical Literature, in that religious connexion with whose friends and supporters it originated. It was also designed to secure a con- venient locality for such associations as had previously existed, or might hereafter exist, for the purpose of advancing the literary, civil, and religious interests of that section of the Christian Church to which it was appropriated. Without undervaluing the advantages of union, either with Evangelical Protestants, or Protestant Nonconformists, on such grounds as admit of liberal cooperation, it was nevertheless deemed expedient to adopt measures for facilitating the concentration and efficiency of their own denomination. In connexion with these important objects, it was thought desirable to institute a Lecture, partaking rather of the character of Academic prelections than of popular addresses ; and embracing a Series of Annual Courses of Lectures, to be delivered at the Library, or, if necessary, in some con- tiguous place of worship. In the selection of Lecturers, it was judged proper to appoint such as, by their literary attainments and ministerial reputation, had rendered service to the cause of divine truth in the consecration of their talents to the " defence and confirmation of the gospel." It was also supposed, that some might be found possessing a high order of intellectual com- petency and moral worth, imbued with an ardent love of biblical science, or eminently conversant with theological and ecclesi- astical literature, who, from various causes, might never have attracted that degree of public attention to which they arc entitled,

X ADVERTISEMENT.

and yet might be both quahfied and disposed to undertake courses of lectures on subjects of interesting importance, not inckided within the ordinary range of pulpit instruction. To illustrate the evidence and importance of the great doctrines of Revelation ; to exhibit the true principles of philology in their application to such doctrines ; to prove the accordance and identity of genuine philosophy with the records and discoveries of Scripture ; and to trace the errors and corruptions which have existed in the (Chris- tian Church to their proper sources, and, by the connexion of sound reasoning with the honest intei-pretation of God's holy Word, to point out the methods of refutation and counteraction ; are amongst the objects for which " the Congregational Lecture" has been established. The arrangements made with the Lec- turers are designed to secure the publication of each separate course, without risk to the Authors ; and, after remunerating them as liberally as the resources of the Institution will allow, to apply the profits of the respective publications in aid of the Library. It is hoped that the liberal, and especially the opulent, friends of Evangelical and Congregational Nonconformity, will evince, by their generous support, the sincerity of their attachment to the great principles of their Christian profession ; and that some may be found to emulate the zeal which established the " Boyle," the " Warburton," and the " Bampton " Lectures in the National Church. These are legitimate operations of the " voluntary principle " in the support of religion, and in perfect harmony with the independency of our Churches, and the spirituality of the kingdom of Christ.

The Committee deem it proper to state that, whatever respon- sibility may attach either to the reasonings or opinions advanced in any Course of Lectures belongs exclusively to the Lecturer.

Congregational Library, Blomfield Street, Fiashunj, April, 1S41.

CONTENTS.

LECTURE I.

EXTERNAL Oil LITEUAKY CONNEXION OF THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS,

Part I.

Introductory Remarks Design of this Course of Lectures Import- ance of this Design Subject of the present Lecture General Affinity of the Old and New Testament Affinity in point of Form and Structure; of Language; of Nomenclature General Allu- sions in the New Testament to the Old Testimony of our Lord and his Apostles to the Authenticity and Inspiration of the Old 'I'estament Allusions in the New Testament to Historical Inci- dents, Institutions, and Characters recorded in the Old Purposes for which these are made 1 3?

Part IL

Verbal Quotations from the Old Testament in the New Sources of these Quotations Deviations from the standard Text in many of the Passages quoted Fornmlre of Quotation Passages introduced without EormuliL' Purposes for which Quotations are made by the New Testament Writers from the Old Meaning of the phrase, " It is fulfilled," and the like in the New Testament Concluding Remarks 37 (iO

XII CONTENTS.

LECTURE II.

INTERNAL OR DOCTRINAL CONNEXION OF THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS DOCTRINES RESPECTING THE DIVINE NATURE.

All Scripture from the same Divine Source Consequent Harmony of all its Statements Problem of a Religion Divine Existence assumed in Scripture Unity of God as taught in the Old Testa- ment— Jehovah not viewed by the Israelites merely as their tutelar Deity Intimations in the Old Testament of the Plurality in the Divine Essence Plural Names of Deity Construction of these with singular Adjuncts Use of the Plural by Jehovah when speaking of or to Himself The Angel of Jehovah The Spirit of Jehovah Intimations in the Old Testament of the threefold Character of the Divine Plurality Conclusion Opinions of the Jews 67-112

LECTURE III.

INTERNAL OR DOCTRINAL CONNEXION OF THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS

DOCTRINES RESPECTING THE DIVINE CHARACTER, AND CONDITION

AND PROSPECTS OF MAN.

Part I.

Moral Character of God Mosaic Account of the Creation and Fall of Man Consequences of the Fall Doctrine of the New Testa- ment on this head Penalty denounced in the primal Threatening not Natural but Spiritual Death This Penalty incurred by all Men Inquiry into the Knowledge possessed by the Old Testa- ment Saints respecting a future State of Rewards and Punishments Degree of Knowledge upon this Subject possessed by the Jews in the Days of our Lord Testimony of Paul to the Fact that such Knowledge was enjoyed by the Patriarchs, and to Abraham's Knowledge of a bodily Resurrection from the Dead . 113 139

Part II.

Evidence from the Old Testament upon this Head Translation of Enoch, Rapture of Elijah, &c. Traces of a Belief on the part of the Patriarchs and Jews in the separate Existence of the Soul after Death Traces of their Knowledge of the Resurrection and the Last Judgment Result of this Inquiry The Expectation of a future State of Retribution must have made those who entertained it deeply concerned as to their State before God Prospects of Man as a Sinner Reasons for Hope A Way of Escape revealed in the New Testament Probability of finding the same in the Old '. 139— IC7

CONTENTS. Xlll

LECTURE IV.

INTERNAL OR DOCTRINAL CONNEXION OF THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS CRITERIA AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MESSIANIC PROPHECIES.

Adaptation of Divine Revelation to the peculiar Circumstances of those to whom it was first addressed Under the ancient Economy God made use of both Words and sensible Symbols to convey Truth to the Minds of Men In relation to the Messiah the former Mode is used in the Prophecies concerning Him, the latter in the Types Duties of the ancient Prophets Subjects of their Oracles Necessity of fixed Criteria of such Prophecies as refer to the Messiah Internal Criteria External Criteria Authority of our Lord and his Apostles final in respect to such Prophecies as they quote Theory of Accommodation This Theory inconsistent with the Divine Authority of the New Testament, as well as with well-known Facts in the Life, Character, and Teaching of our Lord and his Apostles Principles for the Interpretation of the Messianic Prophecies Peculiarities of the Prophetic Style Theory of a Plurality of Senses in Prophecy . . . 1G8 226

LECTURE V.

INTERNAL OR DOCTRINAL CONNEXION OF THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS

SURVEY OF MESSIANIC PROPHECY FROM THE FALL TO THE TIME OF

DAVID.

Three Ages of Messianic Prophecy First Age from the Fall of Adam till the Death of Saul, King of Israel— The first Gospel Exclamation of Eve on the Birth of Cain— Noah's Blessing on Shem and Japheth Promises made to Abraham Blessing of Judah Traces of Acquaintance with the first Gospel in the Book of Job The Prophet like unto Moses 227 277

LECTURE VI.

INTERNAL OR DOCTRINAL CONNEXION OF THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS

SURVEY OF MESSIANIC PROPHECY DURING THE REIGNS OF DAVID

AND SOLOMON.

Second Age of Messianic Prophecy Characteristics of the Prophe- cies belonging to this Age Authors of these Prophecies Prophecy of Nathan to David Last Words of David Messianic Psalms Authorship of these Messianic Character of Psalms ii. xvi. xxii. xl. xlv. Ixxii. ex. vindicated 278 328

XIV CONTENTS.

LECTURE VII.

INTERNAL OK DOCTRINAL CONNEXION OF THL OLD AN D NEW TESTAMENTS

SURVEY OF MESSIANIC FHOPHEClf FROM THE DEATH OF SOLOMON TO

THE TIME OF MALACHI.

Third Age of Messianic Prophecy Historical Notices respecting the Israelites and Jews during this Age General Characteristics of the Prophecies belonging to this Age Messianic Prophecies by Amos, especially chap. ix. ; by Hosea, especially i. 10; by Isaiah, especially vii. 14 16; ix. 5, 6; Hi. 13 liii. 12; by Joel; by Micah, especially v. 1,2; by Jeremiah, especially xxiii. 6; by Daniel, especially ix. 24 27; by Ezekiel; by Haggai, especially ii. 7 ; by Zachariah ; and by Malachi Concluding Remarks . .

329—382

LECTURE VIII.

INTERNAL ORDOCTRINAL CONNEXION OF THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS

NATURE, CRITERIA, AND INTERPRETATION OF TYPES EXAMINATION

OF SOME OF THE LEADING TYPES OF CHRIST IN THE OLD TESTAMENT.

Part I. Definition of a Type Illustration of this Definition Resemblance of a Type to an acted Parable— Adaptation to the Human Mind of this mode of Instruction Instances of the Use of it in Matters not directly connected with Christianity or any Religious Purpose Criteria and Interpretation of Types : I. Mere resemblance to it^ Antitype not the Essence of a Type II. Nothing Typical which is not also Symbolical— Principles of Symbolical Interpretation ni. Types to be distinguished from Comparisons and Allegories IV. The Antitype always more glorious than the Type. 383 410

Part IL

Typical Character of the Levitical Institutes Component Parts of a Ritual General Remarks on the Mosaic Ritual Typical Cha- racter of the Tabernacle, the Sacred Seasons, the Purifications, the Animal Sacrifices, and the Priestly Oftice, among the Jews Official Dress, Consecration, and Duties, of the High Priest Services on the Day of Atonement Meaning of them Reference of the whole to Christ, and fulfilment of the whole in Him Result of this Survey of the Messianic Types 411 465

Part IIL

Summary of the whole Inquiry Concluding Reflections on the Superiority of the Christian to the preceding Dispensations, and on the Oneness of the Church of God in all Ages . . 466 473

CONTENTS. XV

APPENDIX.

PAGE

Note A. Meaning of the term diadrjKT], as ajjpUed to the

Sacred Writings 477

Note B. Opinions of the Christian Fathers respecting the Claims of the Old Testament and its Harmony with the New 480

Note C. Worls treating of the Subject of this Course of

Lectures 484

Note D. Remarks on some of the Quotations in the New Tes- tament from the Old 486

Note E. Opinions of the Fathers regarding the Plural Appel- lations of Deity in the Old Testament .... 491

Note F.—Tkoluck on Heh. xi. 19 49G

Note G. Different Versions of Job xix. 25 27 497

Note H. Allegorical Tnterjjretations of Scripture among the

Ancient Jews 499

Note I. Herder on the Doctrine of Accommodation . . . 502

Note K. Knohel on the Manner in which the Theocratic Pro- phecies were fulfilled by Christ 503

Note L, Hengstenberg on Psalm xlv. 6 506

Note M. Brown on the Suggestive Pmver of External Objects. 508

CONNEXION OF THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS.

LECTURE L

EXTERNAL OR LITERARY CONNEXION OF THE OLD AND NEW

TESTAMENTS.

ISA. XLVI. 9, 10.

" Remember the former things of old : for I am God, and there is none else ; I am God, and there is none like me, declaring the end from the beginning, and from ancient times the things that are not yet done, saying, My counsel shall stand, and I will do all my pleasure.''

PART I.

Amongst the numerous and diversified reli- lect. i. gious systems which have prevailed in the world, ^"'"<^'^'="°"- there are two, the Jewish and the Christian, which stand distinguished from all the rest by the marked peculiarity of being founded upon direct revelations from the Deity, embodied in written documents. Other religions, it is true,

B

EXTERNAL CONNEXION OP

have their sacred books, but these are either confessedly the production of mere men, emi- nent, perhaps, for their sagacity, their foresight, and their knowledge of men and things, but still laying no claim whatever to the enjoyment of supernatural assistance in the composition of their works, or, when pretensions to a higher influence are made, the evidence upon which these rest is so entirely fictitious, that the slightest investigation suffices to set them aside. The sacred books of the Jews and of the Christians, however, after having passed through the most searching scrutiny, in which their claims to Divine inspiration have been analyzed by the severest tests, have come forth from the ordeal with these claims not only unimpaired, but rendered more clear and undeniable by every successive investigation ; so that, without the slightest extravagance, it may be affirmed that nothing beyond a careful and candid exami- nation is requisite in order to satisfy the most scrupulous inquirer of the Divine origin and authority of these books. From this circum- stance these two classes of religionists have been placed in a peculiar relation to each other. The Jews, as the professors of the older faith, and as those who have for the longest time enjoyed the privilege of a Divine revelation, naturally feel inclined to look down with mingled jealousy and contempt upon the pretensions of the Christians. They are ready to allege that the religious system

THE OLD AND xNEW TESTAMENTS. t

of the latter is entirely at variance with that lect. i. which God enjoined upon his ancient people ; and, in spite of evidence as convincing, at least, as any they can adduce in favour of their own Scriptures, they denounce those of the Chris- tians as false and supposititious. The Christians, on the other hand, admit to the fullest extent the Di\ine authority of the Jewish Scriptui'es, and receive with reverence the revelation which they contain. At the same time, as these Scrip- tures themselves announce the prospect of a new revelation, more simple in its statements, more precise in its details, and more final in its character, it is urged by Christians that the mere fact of the prior existence of these Scrip- tures forms no argument against the possibility of the Divine authority of those which they possess, but on the contrary forms of itself a presumption in favour of their claims. They further argue, that in that revelation with which * they have been privileged the acknowledged desideratum of the Jewish Scriptures has been supplied ; inasmuch as, whilst it sets forth the same gi^eat truths as are to be found in them, it presents these to the mind of the reader in a more direct and precise form, and at the same time throws light upon much that is obscure, and gives meaning to much that is unintelligible in the statements, intimations, and ordinances of the older revelation. They have accordingly incorporated the sacred books of the Jews with

b2

4 EXTERNAL CONNEXION OF

LECT. I. their own, as equally a part of the sacred oracles, and equally demanding reverential homage from all to whom they may come ; assigning to both the common appellation of the " Holy Scrip- tures," and distinguishing between them only as the Scriptures of the Old Testament or Cove- nant, and the Scriptures of the New, according to a mode of phraseology of which the earliest intimation occurs in the writings of one of the inspired authors of the latter.* Object of How far the views thus entertained by Chris- course, tians, and which, sanctioned by the highest authority, have prevailed in the church from the earliest times downwards,f are susceptible of articulate proof, it is the object of the present course of Lectures to inquire. Assuming the genuineness, the authenticity, and the inspira- tion of both divisions of the sacred canon, it is proposed to examine into the relation of the two to each other; to estimate the influence which the existence of the earlier has had upon the com- position of the later ; to point out in what they agree, and in what they differ ; to show that, whilst they are substantially in perfect harmony, there is a difference of form, accident, and cha- racter, arising out of the different circumstances in which they were delivered, and the different ends they were primarily designed to answer; and thus to evince that, whilst each is perfectly

* See Appendix, Note A. -\ Appendix, Note B.

THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS. 5

adapted to the purpose it was peculiarly intended lect. i. to serve, both must be taken together if we would perceive the full beauty, understand the full import, and reap the full benefit of either.

An inquiry of such a nature must be admitted interest and

I ,, n 1 importance

to be one oi no small mterest and importance, of this in- Involving, as it does, questions of moment con- '''"'^~" nected with the history of letters among the Jews, its interest even in a literary point of view is not inconsiderable ; but it is from its religious bearings that its main importance, and that which has chiefly prompted to the present course of investigation, arises. It must be obvious that on the right settlement of the various questions presented by such an inquiry depends in no small degree the opinion we shall form both of the meaning of many sections from its bear- of the Old Testament Scriptures, and of the meaningLd

•■•• 1, , 1 D lA j^ use of the Old

use it IS incumbent upon us to make oi that xestamentr portion of the sacred canon. If it cannot be shown to contain substantially the same reli- gious system with that developed in the Chris- tian Scriptures, and if its obscure and symbolical adumbrations of truth are not to be expounded by the clearer revelation with which we have been favoured, it will follow not only that much of it will remain to us a sealed book, but that even to those parts of it which we may be able to understand it will not be competent for us to appeal, either in polemical defence of any contro- verted dogma of our New Testament faith, or

6 EXTERNAL CONNEXION OF

LECT. I. in practical enforcement of those which are ad- mitted on all sides to be true.

Another feature of this inquiry, which confers upon it no small value, is its relation to certain of those controversies which Christians have been called to carry on in defence of their com-

-onthoin- mon faith. On the infidel controversy, for

versy, iustaucc, tlic subjcct before us has a two-fold bearing : the one, as supplying materials for an important part of the direct argument in favour of the Divine authority of the Scriptures that viz. derived from the fulfilment of prophecy ; the other, as aiding to repel the objections which, with its characteristic want of candom*. Infidelity has urged, alike from the irreconcilable discrepancies, and the too close resemblances alleged to exist between the Old Testament and the New, against the inspiration of both. On

^andontiie the coutrovcrsy between Christians and Jews,

Jewish con- , ^ , . . . . ,.

Tersy. also, the bearmg ot tins mqmry is too obvious to require to be pointed out ; for if that in- quiry can be successfully prosecuted ; if it can be shown that the religious system unfolded in the New Testament is essentially the same with that inculcated in the Old ; that all the evi- dences of true Messiahship prescribed by the latter meet in the person whose history and doctrines the former is occupied in setting forth ; and that, besides all this, apart from the reve- lations of the New Testament, a gi'eat part of their own Scriptures must remain even to them-

THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS. 7

selves unintelligible upon any rational principles lect. i. of interpretation ; it must be obvious to all that the materials will be furnished for a most cogent appeal to the best feelings and most enlightened convictions of the Jews, the effect of which, when skilfully and devoutly made, has been already proved in the gathering up of not a few of these outcast branches, who, by the Divine blessing on the use of such means, have been *' graffed into their own olive-tree."

Nor, in enumerating the advantages of such Pleasure it is an inquiry as that before us, must we omit the afford. '^ pleasure which it is calculated to convey to the pious mind, in the view which it will naturally unfold of the unbroken harmony of Divine truth, and the consequent unity of that church which is built upon the truth. In pursuing it we shall be led to trace the stream of gospel bless- ing from its first appearance in our world down to that point where, emerging from the limits to which it had been previously confined, it sent forth its healing and purifying waters over the length and the breadth of our barren and polluted earth. At every stage of its progress we shall have occasion to mark the same properties as characterising it, and the same benignant results as effected by its presence. We shall thus be brought into contact, as it were, with the entire family of the redeemed, and be taught to realize in some measure the delightful fact that, under the gospel dispensation, believers have even in

8 EXTERNAL CONNEXION OF

LECT. I. their present state, " come to the general assembly and chm'ch of the First-born which are written in heaven." By every christian mind an occupation such as this will be welcomed as replete with the materials of the purest and most elevated pleasure.

Attention it ^ subjcct of SO much interest and importance

has already

received, botli iu itself aud in its relations could not fail to attract towards it much of the attention of those who devote themselves to the study of Divine truth. There exist, accordingly, both in our own language and in others, vast masses of learned and profound dissertation upon almost every point embraced in the present subject ; so that in treating of these little is left for a writer in the present day beyond the duty of arranging, condensing, and discriminating the materials of his predecessors. As these, however, exist chiefly in a controversial form, and as, consequently, the general question is viewed rather in its argu- mentative bearings, than in respect of its in- trinsic merits, it is not unfrequently the case that principles are hastily assumed, generaliza- tions rashly made, truth presented only in a one-sided aspect, and conclusions affirmed which rest upon very questionable bases. It seems desirable, therefore, to submit the general ques- tion, as I have already stated it, to a more rigid crisis ; and abstracting for the present from the uses to which the discussion may be applied, to endeavour to ascertain facts and fix principles^

THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS. 9

that thereby a satisfactory basis may be laid for lect. i. further inquiry. In this department some valu- able efforts have of late years been put forth by several German divines of eminence, of whose labours, however, a very discriminating use requires to be made.*

Leaving for subsequent investigation the in- subjectofthe

'=> '■ o present Lee-

teiital harmony of the Old and New Testaments, ture. I shall in the present Lecture confine myself to the consideration of those affinities which subsist between them in an external or literary point of view. Viewing them simply as venerable remains of the literature of a great nation, we shall inquire in what relation they stand to each other, in what light the earlier was viewed by the authors of the later, and what use they made of it in the composition of their own writings.

A person familiar with the Scriptures of the Old General am-

nity of the

Testament, and proceeding to the study of those ow and New of the New, would not advance far in that study without being satisfied that the two volumes are of the same kind, and belong to the literatm-e of the same people. The mode of thought and phraseology in both, the peculiar opinions and prejudices of the writers, the historical and topographical allusions, are all essentially the same, with only such minuter peculiarities as lapse of time and change of circumstance natu-

* See Appendix, Note C.

10 EXTERNAL CONNEXION OF

I'^cT. I. rally produce. The whole cast and character of the authorship of both is oriental and Jewish ; and that notwithstanding the western tongue in which one of them is written, and the greater notice its authors take of western and European affairs. The hterature of no other nation, per- haps, presents so remarkable an instance of two books composed in different languages, and at widely distant periods, in which so many literary affinities are to be found, and in which the national character of the composition is so tho- roughly preserved. Affinity in re- Amoug othcr poluts of literary resemblance

spect of form . . ., . , o n

andstruc- bctw^cu thc two, IS thc snmlarity oi form and structure by which they are pervaded. In neither is religious truth taught in a scientific or systematical form, but by means of narratives, apologues, conversations, popular discourses, or epistolary communications. In this respect both present a striking analogy to the work of God in nature, where the phenomena of every science are to be found scattered in boundless profusion over a wide field, and in every possible variety of combination, without any respect to system, yet always so disposed as never to transgress systematic unity, whilst the very irregularity of their arrangement effects the most useful pur- poses in the physical economy. It is also worthy of notice, that in both the Old Testament and the New an initiatory basis is laid in a historical narrative, to the facts recorded in which a con-

THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS. 1.1

tinual reference is made in the subsequent docu- lect. i. ments. In both we see the nucleus of a distinct and peculiar society laid in the announcement of certain grand religious truths, and gradually, under the auspices of a great Teacher and Legis- lator, endowed with miraculous power, and hold- ing direct intercourse with the Deity, developing itself into a vast, a powerful, and a privileged community, to which the God of the whole earth is represented as standing in a relation of singu- lar complacency, and for the benefit of which all his revelations of truth and duty are pecuharly designed. To neither of these communities, how- ever, is the idea of perfection or finality attached. On the contrary, both are set forth as introduc- tory of a better and more perfect state, of which they contain the germ, and to which the desires and expectations of their members are continually directed. And, as the earlier writers occupy themselves chiefly with the historical narration of the rise and progress of their respective com- munities, the intermediate are principally en- grossed with matters of a hortatory and didactic ^ character, and those towards the close with pro- phetical descriptions and triumphant anticipa- tions of that higher state into which their own was ultimately to emerge, and of which the dis- tinguished privileges they enjoyed were but the prelibation and the pledge.*

* Some by descending to minute details have carried this formal resemblance of the Old and Now Testaments to an

12 EXTERNAL CONNEXION OF

i-ECT. I. Another thing that could not fail to strike the attention of such a reader of the New Testa- absurd extreme. Thus Dr. J. Ch. W, Augusti, of Bonn, in his Versuch einer Historisch-dogviatischen Einleitung in die Heilige Schrift, Leipz. 1832, the fifth chapter of which is devoted to the " Harmony and Connexion of the Old and New Covenant," enumerates, amongst other points of resemblance, the frequent occurrence of mountain scenes, as in the giving of the law on Mount Sinai by Moses, and the sermon on the Mount by our Lord, the appearance of Moses and Elias with our Lord on the Mount of Transfiguration, as compared with the mountain scenes in the history of these prophets, and the ascension of our Lord from Mount Olivet, as compared with that of Moses from Mount Pisgah. He also compares the parting address of Moses (Deut. xxxii. and xxxiii.) with the valedictory discourse of our Lord, (John xvi. xvii.) These minutiae, however, afford no fair specimens of the valuable work from which they are taken. A more interesting, though, perhaps, equally fanciful speculation is that in which others besides Augusti have indulged ; viz. that a parallel may be traced between the history of man and the history of Christ, illustrative of the great truth that the latter came as the second Adam to retrieve the errors and repair the evils committed and caused by the first. For this purpose they compare the mira- culous creation of both, on account of which they are, though in different senses, called Sons of God ; the temptation and fall of Adam, the temptation and triumph of Christ, the tempter in both cases being the same ; the introduction of death through sin on the part of Adam, the destruction of sin through death on the part of Christ ; the cry of Abel's blood for vengeance, as the utterance of justice against cruelty, the commission of Christ to his disciples to make the first offer of salvation in the place where he had been crucified, as the expression of " mercy rejoicing against judgment ;" the confusion of tongues at Babel, as illustrative of the divisive nature of sin, the gift of tongues to the Apostles, as indicating the undoing of the evil which sin had introduced by the reunit- ing power of Christianity, &c. &c. Of such a speculation one need say no more than valcut quantum valere possit.

guage;

THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS. 13

ment as we have supposed, is the obvious in- t-t^-<^t. i. fluence which familiarity with Old Testament ideas and phraseology has exercised upon the -of lan- language of the Evangelists and Apostles. The basis of that language is the common dialect (r^ KOLvr) SLoXeKTos) of the classical Greek ; but it is extremely doubtful whether a Greek familiar only with his own language could have perused with any great degree of ease or intelligence their writings. This arises not so much from the frequent use of Aramaic words by the New Testament writers, a hberty which probably the laxity of the koluij SiaXeKros permitted, as from the continual appropriation of authentic Greek words and phrases to denote ideas alto- gether foreign to that language, and the frequent ingrafting upon it of idioms such as will be sought for in vain in the works of those to whom that language was vernacular. In this respect it is true that differences obtain among the writers of the New Testament ; the language of Luke, for instance, is much purer than that of Matthew or John ; and the later epistles of Paul, written after extensive intercourse on his part with native Greeks, exhibit a marked approxima- tion to the language and idiom of the classical authors, as compared with his earlier epistles : still it is nevertheless the fact that Hebraisms abound to such an extent in every part of the New Testament, that the language of that book may be justly characterised in the words of one

14 EXTERNAL CONNEXION OF

^^cT. I. -vvho more than any other perhaps has made its pecuharities the subject of careful investigation, as a sort of " Judaising Greek, which was for the most part uninteUigible to the native Greeks, and the object of their contempt."* The more closely that these linguistic pecuharities of the New Testament are studied, the more will it become apparent that they are to be traced to the intimate familiarity of its ^vl'iters with the language and phraseology of the Old Testament, and the influence thereby insensibly exerted upon their own.f To the same source also must be traced a remarkable peculiarity in the structure of their sentences exemplified by all the wiiters of the New Testament, though more frequent with some than others. Instead of following the full and rounded periods of the classical writers, their sentences are, generally speaking, brief, and consist of clauses, each of which has a com- plete meaning in itself, and which are united by the conjunctions koI, 8e, or <yap, sometimes by a participial construction, and sometimes by such

* " Ein Judaisirendes Griechisch, u. s. w." Winer's Gram- malik des Nentestamentlichen Sprac?cidioms, § 27, 3te. Aufl.

•f See Michaelis's Introduction to the New Testament, by Marsh, vol. i. ; Home's Introduction, vol. ii. p. 13 30. Edit. 1839 ; Stuart's Grammar of the New Testament Dialect. Lond. 1838 ; also in the Edinburffh Biblical Cabinet, No.X.; Planck's Commentatio de vera Natura atque Indole Orationis Grcecce Novi Test, (translated in the Biblical Cabinet, No. II. p. 91) ; Winer's Grammatih des Nentestamentlichen Sprach- idioms, u. s. w. ; Davidson's Lectures on Biblical Criticism, Lect. 24, &'c.

THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS. 15

particles as ovtco9, KaOws, wairep. In these clauses, lect. i. thus arranged, there is preserved a sort of verbal and real parallelism, whereby the full meaning of the writer is forcibly brought out, and which at once reminds the reader of the grand pecu- liarity of the poetical and ethical parts of the Old Testament. The effect produced is so en- tirely unclassical, that as Michaelis has re- marked of the LXX. were all the Hebraisms, Aramaisms, and other barbarisms removed, and the best and most exquisite words substituted for them, it is doubtful whether even then the style would be entitled to be called Greek.* That such, however, should be the style of men whose minds were full of the Old Testa- ment, and whose thoughts had been shaped and moulded by the familiar study of its con- tents, is what could hardly fail to have been the case.

Closely connected with the language and style -ofnomen-

- clature;

01 the New Testament writers are the names which they employ for the purpose of desig- nating the leading subjects of their revelations. In the unfolding of a religious system this is always a matter of great importance ; for the influence of words upon our conceptions of

* Prcefatio ad R. Lowthii Prcelect. de sacra Poesi Hehrce- orum, p. 407. Oxford ed. 1821. This subject has been dis- cussed with consummate ability by the late Bishop Jebb, in his Sacred Literature, Lend. 1828. See also Home's Intro- duction^ vol. ii. p. 501.

]C) EXTERNAL CONNEXION OF

i>ECT. 1. things is so great, that no ekicidation or enforce- ment of truth, however full and explicit, will suffice to keep the religious sentiments of a scattered community uncorrupt, if these senti- ments become identified with certain terms which suggest secondary ideas of a nature un- congenial with those which in the system they are primarily intended to represent. To the danger of employing such terms the New Tes- tament writers were peculiarly exposed, from the circumstance of their having to write in a language that had previously been employed almost exclusively to express the conceptions of heathens. It is remarkable, however, how few of their religious designations are borrowed from the ordinary phraseology of the Greeks. With a few exceptions the terms they employ for this purpose consist either of Hebrew words taken directly from the Old Testament, or of words and phrases translated from the Hebrew, some-